## Power quality metrics

There are various methods for categorizing the severity of power disturbances. The most typical indices for **measuring power quality disturbances** are listed and explained below:

- Distortion factor
- Crest factor
- Notch area
- Recovery time
- Displacement power factor
- Total power factor
- K factor

### 1. Distortion Factor

The ratio of the root square value of the harmonic content to the root square value of the fundamental quantity, expressed as a percentage of the fundamental, also known as total harmonic distortion.

**where:**

**V**is the RMS harmonic voltage (or current) value at a frequency of n times the fundamental frequency_{h}**V**is the RMS fundamental-frequency voltage or current_{1}

These are referred to as **Total Harmonic Distortion (THD _{Vn})** and

**Total Demand Distortion (TDD)**, defined as follows:

**where:**

**V**is the RMS value of the n_{h}^{th}harmonic component of the voltage**V**is the RMS nominal fundamental voltage value_{n}**I**is the RMS value of the n_{h}^{th}harmonic component of the current**I**is the maximum demand load current, typically the average maximum monthly demand over a 12-month period_{L}

### 2. Crest Factor

**The ratio of the peak value of a periodic function to the RMS value, i.e.:**

**where:**

**y**is the peak value of a periodic function_{peak}**y**is the RMS value of the function_{rms}

Because power system voltages and currents are nominally sinusoidal, the nominal crest factor for these would be √2.

### 3. Notch Area

**A notch in the power system voltage (or current) is illustrated in figure 1 below:**

**The notch area for the notch as illustrated in figure above is defined as:**

**where:**

**A**is the notch area in volt-microseconds_{n}**t**is the notch time duration in microseconds**d**is the notch depth in volts

### 4. Recovery time

This is the time needed for the output voltage or current to return to a value within the regulation specification after a step load or line change.

### 5. Displacement Power Factor

The ratio of the active power of the fundamental wave, in watts, to the apparent power of the fundamental wave, in volt-amperes.

**power factor**.

### 6. Total Power Factor

The ratio of the total input power, in watts, to the total volt-ampere input. This includes the effects of harmonics.

### 7. K Factor

**A measure of a transformer’s ability to serve non-sinusoidal loads. The K factor is defined as:**

**where:**

**I**is the harmonic component at h times the fundamental frequency_{h}**h**is the harmonic order of**I**in multiples of the fundamental frequency_{h}**h**is maximum harmonic order present_{max}

**Reference:** Power Quality Considerations- Bill Brown, P.E., Square D Engineering Services

Bernabe ocampo

one the sign is the increment of the loos en the transformer and the increment in the temperature in the motors and the power supply,the armonic made the system more inefficient-

Apolo Fumbuja

If I have not a power analyzer, how can i measure or estimate those parameters?

Jim

Can i ask you something? Why true power doenst change (theoretically speaking right, as long as in actual) and there is a big change in Active energy in the result when i install power quality in the mdp.Thank you and im looking forward for your response.

Bernabe ocampo

Really the first harmonic is only that do for active Power the other only ,made distortion and loss in the equipment ,for this reason,that idea would be get only the first harmonic,

there are harmonics thah are inevitables for example the fluxes generated in the core of transformes ,the current magnetization have important 3 harmonic-

Emad Eddin

thank you so much for all these useful information , but plz would you like to write some practical examples

thanks

James

I really am interested in that particular section of electrical engineering.

Jimmy Valeriano

Can you discuss how to interpret the grahical test result of power analyzer…