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Theory and operation

This manual contains a generalized overview of the fundamentals of transformer theory and operation. The transformer is one of the most reliable pieces of electrical distribution equipment.

Power Transformer Maintenance And Acceptance Testing
Power Transformer Maintenance And Acceptance Testing (on photo: Austin Energy’s Substation Maintenance Power Transformer hot oil processing and vacuum filling; credit:

It has no moving parts, requires minimal maintenance, and is capable of withstanding overloads, surges, faults, and physical abuse that may damage or destroy other items in the circuit.

Often, the electrical event that burns up a motor, opens a circuit breaker, or blows a fuse has a subtle effect on the transformer.

Although the transformer may continue to operate as before, repeat occurrences of such damaging electrical events, or lack of even minimal maintenance can greatly accelerate the even failure of the transformer. The fact that a transformer continues to operate satisfactorily in spite of neglect and abuse is a testament to its durability. However, this durability is no excuse for not providing the proper care.

Most of the effects of aging, faults, or abuse can be detected and corrected by a comprehensive maintenance, inspection, and testing program.


Substation transformers can range from the size of a garbage can to the size of a small house; they can be equipped with a wide array of gauges, bushings, and other types of auxiliary equipment.

The basic operating concepts, however, are common to all transformers.

An understanding of these basic concepts, along with the application of common sense maintenance practices that apply to other technical fields, will provide the basis for a comprehensive program of inspections, maintenance, and testing.

These activities will increase the transformers’s service lie and help to make the transformer’s operation both safe and trouble-free.

Title:Power Transformer Maintenance And Acceptance Testing
Size:3.3 MB
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Power Transformer Maintenance And Acceptance Testing
Power Transformer Maintenance And Acceptance Testing

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  1. Arthi
    May 06, 2019

    It’s an a great article. Everyone should want to read this article.

  2. shahin
    Mar 14, 2019

    3phase bank transformer drawing more current in y phase in primary at no load and temperature increasing.what is the possible cause?

  3. rajabu a lumbila
    Feb 22, 2019

    its good and help to other

  4. Brian Tsveture
    Apr 11, 2018

    thanks for the info…great stuff here

  5. Halpin Halit Apwaka
    Dec 19, 2017

    Many thanks

  6. ejaz
    Aug 07, 2015

    could not download

  7. Vinod Maurya
    Aug 18, 2014

    I want to know about transformer neutral ground related. if transformer neutral is not grounded. that time we connected one bulb transformer phase with ground . that time bulb will glow or not.

    • Shabbir Ahmed Malik
      Jun 29, 2018

      Yrs, lamp will glow across one phase of transformer and ground. Ground is considered as zero potential if it is adequately earthed.
      On the other hand, Lamp will also glow across one phase of trafo and trafo neutral point or Star point even un earthed. Reason being trafo star point tefered as at zero potential as per kirchaf Law when 2 currents meering at a same point in same direction with same magnitude results zero.

    • ShabbirAhmed Malik
      Jun 29, 2018

      Yes, if groung is adequatey earthed remains at zero potential like wise trafo neutral point even not earthed rrmains at zero point as pee Kirchaf Law..,when 2 or more current meeting at same point in same direction with same magnitude results zero potential.So lamp will glow either way you chose.

  8. siavash533
    Oct 09, 2013

    the link is dead please upload it again.

    • Edvard
      Oct 09, 2013

      I just checked the link and it works. Maybe had some hickup in the moment you tried to download guide. Please try again, it should work now.

    Jun 11, 2013


  10. Lamin
    Jan 07, 2012

    Avery simple detels but it is helpfull.

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