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This technical article reviews substation level data acquisition architecture and communication protocol described in IEC 61850. IEC 61850 is the current international standard for substation automation (SA). The focus of… Read more
May 09, 2018 | Monitoring
The arrangement of outdoor switchgear layouts and installations is mostly influenced by economic considerations, in particular adaptation to the space available and the operational requirements of reliability and ease of… Read more
May 07, 2018 | Power Substation
Differences between the electrical characteristics of overhead transmission lines and high voltage AC cables are fundamental and must be considered. This article gives a brief introduction to cable technology, with…...
May 04, 2018 | Cables ♛
Even with the best engineering practices, abnormal situations can arise that may produce damage to power transformer and other equipment and compromise the continuity of the delivery of quality power… Read more
May 02, 2018 | Power Substation
People familiar with electricity frequently accept the idea that “Ground is ground,” i.e., that in a house, especially with a grounding system that complies with the NEC or CEC, all… Read more
Apr 30, 2018 | Energy and Power
This technical article shed light on terminology used in the field of SCADA and industrial automation. The terms SCADA, distributed control system (DCS), programmable logic controller (PLC), remote terminal unit… Read more
Apr 25, 2018 | Industrial Automation
Because of the predominantly inductive character of the power system, an active power flow between source and load must be accomplished with a phase lag between the terminals. Phase-shifting transformers… Read more
Apr 23, 2018 | Transformers
Electrical installations are power systems aimed at final low voltage electricity consumption in homes, offices, and small companies. In electrical installation, electricity is usually taken from the public distribution network. Recently…...
Apr 20, 2018 | Premium Content ♛
A substation can employ many relaying systems to protect the equipment associated with the station. The most important of these are: transmission and distribution lines emanating from the station, step-up… Read more
Apr 18, 2018 | Power Substation
Several problems contribute to the overall reliability or unreliability of capacitor banks. In a detailed analysis of Kansas City Power & Light’s automated capacitor banks, Goeckeler reported that blown fuses… Read more
Apr 16, 2018 | Power Substation
There are a number of problems that commonly occur in industrial and commercial networks, and some of them are covered in the following paragraphs. Coordination malfunctioning is leading to nuisance… Read more
Apr 11, 2018 | Power Substation
Substations are locations where transmission lines are tied together. They fulfill a number of functions. One of them is that they allow power from different generating stations to be fed… Read more
Apr 09, 2018 | Power Substation
Electrical power systems nowadays are generated, transmitted, and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power is produced at the power stations which are located in suitable places,…...
Apr 06, 2018 | Power Substation ♛
Protection engineers have a variety of communication channels to use for relay protection. This is a field in itself, and is very important for a discussion of the protective systems…. Read more
Apr 04, 2018 | Protection
RTUs (remote terminal units) are now made from small computers. Shortly after this began, controller algorithms were programmed into the RTU. Flow totalizers, power factor calculators, and logic solvers soon… Read more
Apr 02, 2018 | Industrial Automation